Book review: The Holocaust, A New History

by Matthew Wright / 12 April, 2017

Former Nazi German concentration and death camp Auschwitz-Birkenau in occupied Poland. Photo/Getty Images

A new book says there was no overriding master plan for the Holocaust – just a desire to commit evil.

In this breathtaking volume, British journalist and author Laurence Rees tells us he has something new to say about the systematic Nazi murder of Europe’s Jewish population during World War II. To a large extent he succeeds, painting a picture of a nation led astray by prejudices orchestrated by one man – Adolf Hitler.

It seems apt that at a time when authoritarianism seems again on the rise, Rees’ focus is on the how-and-why of the Holocaust. In some ways, his argument is familiar. The fact Hitler leveraged German anti-Semitism is well established, but Rees presents the story of Nazi Germany’s fall from grace with significant nuance.

Elsewhere, Rees finds new angles, arguing there was no overarching master plan for a Holocaust. Hitler and the Nazis had direction, but were willing to exploit whatever path emerged – a more chaotic approach than history usually assigns them. Rees calls the turning points “moments of escalation”. And his arguments are compelling.

The result, as he puts it, was a “crime of singular horror in the history of the human race”.

For all that, there are places where his study seems a little thin. We learn a lot about how the Nazis went about their crimes, and about the victims; but less about why ordinary Germans were also party to it. After all, the death camp guards did not emerge from a vacuum.

Academics Hannah Arendt, Theodor Adorno and Robert Altemeyer have all offered explanations for why everyday Germans took part in the Holocaust – all indictments, in various ways, of human nature. There were also Stanley Milgram’s psychological tests of 1963. For all the controversy behind them, his experiments showed that test subjects will obey orders to “hurt” and “kill”.

More recent studies suggest people actively engage with such directions not through conditioning to obey, but because it makes them feel good. That point comes out in Rees’ narrative when he explores mass killings in the Baltic states – where some guards, he shows, got a kick out of killing. Elsewhere, he notes, death camp guards became sadists, often with scarcely disguised sexual undertones, taking pleasure in humiliating and abusing the victims they were sending to their deaths. But there was more he could have said about why such behaviours emerged in supposedly law-abiding people brought up with proper moral compass.

To this extent, Rees’ book is important not only for what it says, but also for what it does not say. His exposé of the darkest crime in the history of humanity is a timely reminder of the moral precipice on which humanity so often teeters. The potential to be evil, it seems, lurks relentlessly behind the facade, and the chilling implication is every nation carries the potential to morally fall as far and hard as 1930s Germany.

History never repeats in detail, but human nature never changes. We have to be wary. And that makes Rees’ remarkable book essential reading.

The Holocaust, A New History, by Laurence Rees (Viking, $40)

Matthew Wright is one of New Zealand’s most published historians and a Fellow of the Royal Historical Society at University College, London.

This article was first published in the March 25, 2017 issue of the New Zealand Listener. Follow the Listener on Twitter, Facebook and sign up to the weekly newsletter.


How NZ women won the right to vote first: The original disruptors & spiteful MPs
96463 2018-09-19 00:00:00Z History

How NZ women won the right to vote first: The orig…

by Vomle Springford

Is it right that while the loafer, the gambler, the drunkard, and even the wife-beater has a vote, earnest, educated and refined women are denied it?

Read more
Fémmina: The story of NZ's unsung suffrage provocateur Mary Ann Müller
96479 2018-09-19 00:00:00Z History

Fémmina: The story of NZ's unsung suffrage provoca…

by Cathie Bell

Mary Ann Müller was fighting for women’s rights before Kate Sheppard even arrived here, but her pioneering contribution to the cause is little known.

Read more
How Marilyn Waring went from political prodigy to international influencer
96505 2018-09-19 00:00:00Z Profiles

How Marilyn Waring went from political prodigy to …

by Clare de Lore

Marilyn Waring is nearing the last chapter of an account of her time as an MP, which ended abruptly with the calling of a snap election.

Read more
Ian McKellen charms his way through a documentary about his life
96472 2018-09-19 00:00:00Z Movies

Ian McKellen charms his way through a documentary …

by James Robins

Joe Stephenson’s tender documentary Playing the Part looks at McKellen's life as an actor, activist and perpetual wizard.

Read more
The Chosen Bun: A smart new burger joint opens in Stonefields
96507 2018-09-19 00:00:00Z Auckland Eats

The Chosen Bun: A smart new burger joint opens in …

by Alex Blackwood

Burgers, milkshakes and fries are not rare things to find in Auckland, so The Chosen Bun's owners were smart to be very picky about their ingredients.

Read more
The brutality experienced by the suffragettes
11636 2018-09-19 00:00:00Z Listener NZ 2015

The brutality experienced by the suffragettes

by Sally Blundell

As we mark 125 years since NZ women got the right to vote, we must remember it didn't come easily.

Read more
The case for closing prisons
96403 2018-09-18 00:00:00Z Social issues

The case for closing prisons

by Paul Little

If we want a prison system that does a better job than the current one, alternatives aren’t hard to find.

Read more
Jennifer Curtin: The feminist political scientist mixing rugby with politics
96422 2018-09-18 00:00:00Z Profiles

Jennifer Curtin: The feminist political scientist …

by Clare de Lore

Australian-New Zealander Jennifer Curtin says the lopsided nature of the Bledisloe Cup pales in comparison to the slump in transtasman relations.

Read more